This work package has built among others on the FP5 project 100% RENET within which VWP has found out which chemical oil parameters are decisive for fuelling advanced engines with closed particulate filter. Engine technique and especially particulate filters have problems with phosphor (P), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), which finally block the particulate filters or cause friction inside the engine.
The first quality standard for vegetable oil, the German DIN V 51605, set a limit of 32 mg/kg for P, Ca and Mg together to these elements, which is much too high for advanced engine concepts, notably for engines with a closed particulate filter. Hence, a special cleaning and purification process was found and established in a regular standard decentralised oil mill. With this innovative cleaning process and the help of chemical additives and process optimisation, it was the goal to bring the sum content of P, Ca/Mg down to the limit of traceability.
In single experimental oil pressing trials, the value could neither be repeated systematically, nor is it understood which parameters have which influence exactly. The point which had become clear so far was that oil from seeds with different origin lead to different results. This was surprising, because, normally, the chemical properties of specific oils are relatively stable and different chemical and physical properties result essentially from the oil press parameters.
It seemed that, when approaching extremely small contents of P/Mg/Ca, the natural very small fluctuations of oil properties could no longer be neglected. That was the starting point for the RTD on vegetable oil fuel in this project.
The final objective of this work package was to develop a 2nd generation vegetable oil with < 1 mg/kg P/Mg/Ca in continuous production from rape seeds of different origin and with different chemical properties of the raw oil.
Further, 15.000 liters of sunflower, jatropha and camelina sativa oil were planned to be blended to first and second generation oils such that the blends fit with the respective limits for P/Mg/Ca. Further, different natural products were considered as additives to better adapt vegetable oil to engines and their requirements.
Finally, the quality of < 1.5 mg/kg P/Mg/Ca was achieved much more quickly than anticipated for a broad range of different oils and was used for the development and demonstration work in the project.