Project activity reports (deliverables)
The work and the intermediate and final results of the project are reported in so-called deliverables, short reports that mark the achievement of an intermediate or final objective. On this page, the public deliverables or short public summaries of confidential deliverables are presented and available for download. The deliverables are listed according to workpackages and within the workpackages by logic order of work steps.
The Publishable Final Project Report has benn published in the format of a monograph.
One page summary of final conclusions of the project
Workpackage 1: Project Management
The only public deliverable of this workpackage will be the publishable final report which will be available at the end of 2011.
Workpackage 2: Engine Development
The work in this workpackage consists of two distinct parts: (WP 2A) development work on tractor engines (del 2.1-2.6, 2.14) and (WP 2B) development work on a hybrid engine test stand (del 2.7-2.13). The latter contains among others a tractor engine, but this engine is only adapted to pure vegetable oil operation in the beginning (EU emission stage 3A) without being modified further in the course of the work.
(WP 2A) Development work on tractor engines
Survey on state-of-the-art exhaust aftertreatment technologies and impact of plant oil fuels on their use (del 2.1)
This survey provides an overview on state-of-the-art technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems for diesel engines with a particular focus on off-road vehicles. The impact of the use of pure vegetable oil as fuel on such systems is presented.
Biofuel exhaust gases tend to plug diesel particulate filters (DPF) because of ash forming elements in the fuel. Further, some of these elements are toxic for diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Hence, it is of high importance to reduce these elements in the fuel through appropriate purification (see workpackage 3) and to establish fuel standards that limit the ash-forming and DOC-toxic elements (see workpackage 6).
Redesign of Stage 3a Serial Adaptation Technology (del 2.14)
This document describes preparatory work that had become necessary at the beginning of the project when unexpectedly a bad cold start behaviour and an early damage of the fuel pump were discovered in an John Deere MY2008 engine that was adapted in a way that had been proven suitable for MY2007 engines. As no changes of the engine from MY2007 to MY2008 were known to John Deere nor visible at first glance, a thorough investigation of the components from sub-suppliers was necessary.
Undocumented changes were detected in the fuel pump and the injection system. A change of the cold start software map and the installation of an internal preheating system allowed to regain the performance achieved previously with adapted MY2007 engines. The work allowed to improve the adaptation kit for pure vegetable oil tractors that was subsequently used for the engine development (WP2) and demonstration (WP5) work.
The redesign programme was defined after project start when the unexpected problems were discovered. For this reason the deliverable number is not in line with the logic development of the workpackage.
Test stand for engines converted to rapeseed oil operation (del 2.2)
John Deere has configured a test stand for engines to perform tests of engines with diesel and, after conversion, with pure vegetable oil. The test stand allows measuring engine and emission parameters.
Functional stage 3A pure vegetable oil engine (del 2.3)
Engine performance and emission tests with rapeseed, sunflower, camelina sativa and jatropha oil were done on a John Deere 6068 PowerTech Plus Stage 3A engine that was adapted for pure vegetable oil operation in the same way as the tractors of the demonstration fleet (see workpackage 5).
All vegetable oils used for the tests fulfilled the German pre-norm DIN V 51605 and, in addition, had extremely low values for P, Ca and Mg after purification of the oils (see workpackage 3). The rape seed oil had < 0.8 mg/kg P and < 1.2 mg/kg Ca+Mg, while P, Ca and Mg were below the detection limit of 0.5 mg/kg for P and Ca+Mg for all other oils. Reference measurements were made with Shell V-Power Diesel fulfilling the norm DIN EN 590.
The engine performance after adaptation and during operation with vegetable oil was very close to the performance of the original unmodified engine when run with diesel fuel.
Emissions measured in the Non-Road Stationary Cycle (NRSC) kept for all tested vegetable oils within the EU stage 3A limits that apply for engines in the power range of 130-560 kW. The emission component which is the closest to the limit is NOx.
In addition, emissions in the Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) were measured for diesel and rapeseed oil. For a part of the NRTC measurements, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) was retrofit. The NRTC is only obligatory from EU stage 3B on onwards, but was measured to get a first impression of the engine performance in this cycle. NOx was above the limits for stage 3A in NRTC, while particulate matter were below the stage 3A limit without DPF and kept even below the limit of stage 3B with DPF.
Functional stage 3B pure vegetable oil engine (del 2.4)
Engine performance and emission tests with rapeseed oil were successfully passed with a new and subsequently adapted John Deere PowerTech PVX engine with integrated DOC/DPF that is designed to match EU stage 3B emission limits. Basic tests were carried out with diesel and, after adaptation of the engine, pure vegetable oil fulfilling the German pre-norm DIN V 51605 and additional restrictions on the P, Ca and Mg content (2nd generation pure vegetable oil, 2G-PVO).
The engine showed a similar behaviour as the preceding stage 3A PowerTech Plus engine. After hardware and software modifications the engine's full load curve deviated less than 1% from the original diesel operation full load curve when being fuelled with pure vegetable oil.
Emissions measured in the NRSC kept within stage 3B limits for engines in the net power range between 130 and 560 kW when run with pure rape seed oil. Again NOx proved to be the most critical exhaust gas component, while post DOC/DPF emissions of CO, HC and particulate matter kept well below the stage 3B limits. For improving NOx emissions, additional software adjustments are considered. Work also needs to be done on the active regeneration system for the DOC/DPF in order to allow it being operated with pure vegetable oil. Up until now, this is still done with diesel fuel.
Report on Stage 3B engine (del 2.5)
In order that the John Deere PowerTech PVX engine with integrated DOC/DPF meets the EU stage 3B emission limits also for NOx when being operated with pure vegetable oils, the engine software settings were modified. A suitable set of parameter values was searched by varying several engine parameters for three points of the NRSC while fuelling the engine with 2nd generation pure rape seed oil (2G-PVO-RS). The thus identified optimum parameter set was used for tests with 2nd generation rape seed, camelina sativa and jatropha oils (2G-PVO-RS, 2G-PVO-CS and 2G-PVO-JA). The emissions kept within the EU stage 3B limits in the NRSC for all three oil fuels. In the same way, tests in the NRTC were successfully passed. The emissions of particulate matter (PM) stayed significantly below the EU stage 3B limits (identical with stage 4 for PM) when the cold, respectively warm engine was fuelled with 2G-PVO-RS, -CS and -JA.
Functional Stage 4 pure vegetable oil engine (del 2.6)
For achieving the EU stage 4 emission levels with 2G-PVO fuels, a JD PowerTech PSX engine with integrated after-treatment device (ATD) was used. The ATD consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR). The DOC and DPF are the same as those on the EU stage 3B compliant engine. Measurements were again done with diesel reference fuel and 2G-PVO-RS, -CS, and -JA fuels. The engine software was set differently for diesel and PVO fuels such that the same full load power was obtained for all fuels. After some further fine tuning of the software settings that optimised the NOx emissions, the EU stage 4 emission limits could be observed for all 2G-PVO fuels in the NRSC and NRTC.
(WP 2B) Development work on a hybrid engine test stand
Hybrid engine test stand (del 2.7)
A hybrid test stand has been set up at the Technical University of Munich. It consists of a John Deere 6068 Powertech Plus four-valve tractor engine with common rail system for fuel injection, turbocharger and external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. A 4-quadrant-machine simulates the hybrid system and can act either as a load and an electric motor. The engine test stand allows assessing torque, angular velocity, consumption, exhaust gas temperature and composition and particulate matter content.
Hybrid engine measurement and tests (del 2.8)
The hybrid test stand was validated and reference tests and measurements with mineral diesel fuel were executed. The collected comprehensive measurement data will be used (1) for later comparison with the vegetable oil measurement data, (2) as input data for the simulation and (3) for validating the simulation results.
Assortment of representative load cycles (del 2.9)
The hybrid engine development focuses on emissions and fuel consumption. Representative load cycles have been selected for the final testing matrix. These consist of the Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) for certification of the emission steps EU stage 3B and 4 and a reduced Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft (DLG) Powermix cylcle.
Results of basic measurement with 2nd generation vegetable oil (del 2.10)
Basic measurements (Non-road Stationary Cycle, NRSC) with 2nd generation rape seed oil on the hybrid engine test stand are reported. Only a few operation points are unfavourable for vegetable oil use as fuel. One is the starting phase. Using the pre-heating system from VWP fully solves all problems in this phase. Further, CO emissions are higher than in diesel operation for low engine speeds and loads. This will be solved by adapting the injection strategy. Particulate matter emissions are low in all operation modes. It needs to be checked if this remains the case in NRTC measurements. Real development work is needed to lower NOx emissions for achieving the emission limits EU stage 3B and 4.
Exposition of hybrid functions (del 2.11)
A model for the hybrid system has been developed and programmed with the Dymola software using the Modelica language. The main aim of the hybrid development work is the reduction of emissions, notably particulate matter. A parallel hybrid system is modelled, i.e. the speed of the combustion engine and the electric motor is the same. The distribution of the required torque on both machines is the adjustable parameter. A synchronous electric motor is selected because of it's good efficiency values over a broad torque range. Apart from optimising the torque of the combustion engine in stationary operation, the reduction of transients optimises the emissions. An optimum controller for near-stationary operation and a dynamic border torque controlling strategy that reduces torque gradients in transient operation have been developed. They are combined by a constant speed detection module and complemented by a start-stop controller. For a NRSC the simulation shows no advantages of hybridization, for NRTC 27% soot reduction is achieved, depending on hybrid system configuration and operation strategy.
Hybrid measurements (del 2.12)
The optimum hybrid configuration that was identified through modelling (see del. 2.11) was transferred to the hybrid test stand (see del. 2.7). The combustion engine was fuelled with 2nd generation jatropha, rapeseed, soya, sunflower oil, and, for comparison, with diesel fuel during the tests. The measurements confirmed the results of the modeling.
It became apparent that using oxygenated fuel such as 2nd generation pure vegetable oil brings significant advantages for operation with transient cycles. On the average particulate (PM) emissions are reduced by 20% and NOx by 30%. Thus, the hybrid engine does not achieve EU stage 4 emission levels without aftertreatment systems, but greatly allows to reduce emissions in the NRTC cycle.
Validation and conclusions (del 2.13)
Del. 2.13 is the final deliverable for the hybrid drive development work within 2ndVegOil. It summarizes the work done and the results achieved.
The investigations of hybrid drivelines fuelled with 2nd generation pure vegetable oils (2G-PVO) have shown that the potential for reducing PM emissions in transient cycles such as the non-road transient cycle (NRTC) is about 20%. Using 2G-PVO fuels has the potential to significantly reduce PM emissions due to the oxygen in the fuel. The hybrid concept has even a higher advantage for standard diesel fuel where this effect of chemically bound oxygen in the fuel does not exist. Here, the hybrid drive allows reducing PM emissions even by 30%
The hybrid drive does not allow to reduce emissions below the limits of EU stage 4 without an aftertreatment system, but the costs for operating the latter are strongly reduced by the hybrid drive. So, the longer regeneration cycles of the particulate filter allow reducing the consumption for instance.
Workpackage 3: Fuel development
Survey on oil quality (del 3.1)
This document presents an overview on existing know-how about the requirements for oil quality for pure vegetable oil fuel. As such, it provides a detailed description of the 2ndVegOil starting line with regard to knowledge about oil quality requirements. The perspective is from the oil production side. The main focus is on the content of phosphorous (P), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the fuel, i.e. those variable parameters which are crucial for the use in modern engines. The survey is made on the example of rape seed oil for which the most extensive experience exists.
The first fuel specification standard for pure vegetable oil that included variable properties that depend on growth, pressing, storage, etc., was developed in 1982 by E.H. Pryde. He suggested to limit the P content to 20 mg/kg to prevent problems in fuel tanks, lines and filters. The first standard that limited the Ca and Mg content after these elements were shown to correlate with engine damanges, was the German pre-norm DIN V 51605 (20 mg/kg for Ca + Mg; 12 mg/kg for P).
The content of P, Ca and Mg can be reduced by avoiding corn break, ensuring good maturity of the seeds before harvest, avoiding moisture and related outgrowth as well as soiling, and by a low pressing temperature. Further, the sort of rape seeds has an influence. E.g. summer rape seed oil contains more P, Ca and Mg than winter rape seed oil. All this is true for oil seeds, too, except that different temperatures and other oil press parameter settings are required for other oil seeds according to preliminary pressing experience.
State-of-the-art oil pressing technology allows to produce rape seed oil that fits with DIN V 51605 in small decentralise oil mills. For achieving a P+Ca+Mg content of < 1.5 mg/kg, additional purification is necessary. Further, the content of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) requires attention, too. These two issues are worked on in workpackage 3, fuel development.
Review on engine requirements (del 3.2)
This document provides a review on engine requirements for pure vegetable oil as fuel. The perspective is from the engine operation side. The focus is again on P, Ca and Mg. These elements have been found to be poisonous for catalysts and/ or the origin of damages on soot filters, pistons, piston rings, injectors and valves. The history of attempt to limit their content in rape seed oil and the discrepancy of interests between operators of small decentralised oil mill who prefer weak limits and engine manufacturers who prefer strong limits is presented.
The most relevant reference standard for pure rape seed oil fuel, the DIN V 51605 (valid since 2006) allows P < 12 mg/kg and Ca+Mg < 20 mg/kg. Significant research that these limits are too high and almost complete removal of these elements should be emphasized has been obtained within the Austrian 35 tractor programme (EU stage 1 and stage 2 engines, 2003-2008), a research project of John Deere (EU stage 2 and stage 3 engines, 2005-2008), a study prepared by Deutz (2008) and notably by work of VWP within the EU FP5 100% RENET project (2002-2005, www.100re.net
). The need to keep the content of Na and K low, too, has not been systematically studied now, but their are strong arguments that this should be done.
Survey on additives (del 3.3)
A survey has been performed about substances that can reduce the content of P, Ca and Mg in pure vegetable oil if added during the oil pressing and purification process ("purification additives" or "filter additives", not to be confused with substances that are added to the fuel oil and remain there; the latter are more precisely denoted as "fuel additives").
The substances bleaching clay, synthetic silica, kieselguhr, cellulose and perlite reduce the content of P, Ca and Mg when being added to the pressed fuel oil during the purification.
Report on optimised oil (del 3.4)
Experiments have been done on a decentralised oil press in Austria to optimise the production of pure vegetable oil, notably with regard to the content of P, Ca and Mg. Further parameters that were observed have been the limits set by DIN V 51605 and the oil yield. Partially, other elements such as Na, K and Si were monitoried.
In a first step a sum content of < 3.5 mg/kg P+Ca+Mg was achieved for rape seed oil by simple optimisation of the press parameter. Then, 9 different filter additives were tested. The additive OBEFIL was found to achieve the highest performance. Subsequently, the experimental work focused on OBEFIL and the optimisation of its use for different vegetable oils.
Finally, the target of reducing the sum content of P, Ca and MG below 1.5 mg/kg could be achieved for rape seed, sunflower, camelina sative, jatropha and maize germ oil.
The achieved results exceed the initial objectives. Further development will now concentrate on other up to now not yet considered ash building elements such as sodium (Na) and potassium (K) and on the optimisation of the oxidation stability.
Additive report (del 3.5)
This deliverable was cancelled because the previous work steps have shown that there are no fuel additives that could reduce the content of P, Ca and Mg in pure vegetable oil. The submitted documents explains this in more detail.
Engine versus oil quality test report (del 3.6)
Two off-the-shelf combined heat and power (CHP) stations with 5.3 kWel and 10.5 kWth nominal load were adapted to pure vegetable oil operation in line with previously achieved results on optimum engine adaptation for rape seed oil. The CHP have a one cylinder engine and a closed particulate filter system.
The engines have been operated for 500 h, respectively, with four different fuels: rape seed fuel with 10 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg P+Ca+Mg and camelina sativa and maize germ oil with 1 mg/kg. The whole operation cycle of 2000 h was run with each engine separately.
This was done to verify the impact of different contents of P, Ca and Mg on the combustion behaviour. In particular, the build-up of deposits on the injectors and the particulate filter, which have an impact on the length of the service intervals, was monitored. Further, the aim was to check if the kind of pure vegetable oil is equally or less relevant than the P, Ca and Mg content.
The operation has shown that the content of P, Ca and Mg influences the build-up of deposits very strongly, while the kind of oil has no significant relevance. The results let further assume that the differences in the combustion behaviour of different vegetable oils can be dealt with by appropriate adaptation of the engine parameters.
As a result of this finding, the workprogramme of the 2ndVegOil project was modified and test runs with (WP2), and demonstration of (WP5), were decided to be done with pure other oils than rape seed oil and with high instead of low blends of the former in the latter. This change represents a significant mark-up of the project's objectives (see del 2.3 etc.).
Addendum on Jatropha (del 3.6 addendum)
When the tests of different vegetable oils with one cylinder CHP engine were made, Jatropha oil was not available in sufficient quantities. The test run with Jatropha oil was done in April and May 2010. The 1,000 hours test run led to the conclusion that jatropha oil can equally well be used as fuel oil as the other beforehand tested oils.
Conclusions on optimised oil (del 3.7)
This deliverable was cancelled because the progress in oil purification was achieved much more rapidely than anticipated. Thus, the objectives of task 3.7 were already achieved in task 3.4 (see del 3.4).
Reference press I (del 3.8)
Based on the development work in the previous tasks, a decentralised oil mill in Lower Austria, belonging to Öl- und Bioenergie GmbH, has been equipped with a dosing unit for OBEFIL and several test runs have been implemented for achieving optimum oil pressing and purification at lowest possible cost. The dosing unit design was specifically developed and optimised within this work. The optimisation of the press included modifications of the filtration process.
Alltogether, 80.000 liters of different oils with P+Ca+Mg < 1.5 mg/kg were produced until autumn 2009 for the engine development and demonstration work in the 2ndVegOil project.
Reference press II (del 3.9)
A second reference press for producing purified vegetable oils with a sum content of P, Ca and Mg below 1.5 mg/kg has been set up in France. It is an innovative, mobile press which is operated by the CUMA Verte Prairie in the region Rhône-Alpes. The press allows the French project partners to produce the fuel for the 2ndVegOil demonstration tractors by themselves. The specific technologie developed in WP3 of this project can be implemented at farm level, thus permitting economic value creation and income generation in rural areas.
By April 2010, 14,000 liters of rape seed oil had been cleaned and a sum content of P, Ca and Mg of less than 1.5 mg/kg was achieved.
Reference press III (del 3.10)
A third reference press for 2nd generation pure vegetable oil, i.e. oil fulfilling the requirements of DIN V 51602 + keeping below the limit of 1.5 mg/kg for the sum content of P, Ca and Mg has been set up on the experimental farm of the Instytut Budownictwa, Mechanizacji i Elektryfikacji Rolnictw (IBMER) in Poznan. The purification process is different from the one that is applied at the Austrian and French reference presses.
Until the end of 2010, 1,300 liters of 2nd generation vegetable oil have been produced. In 2011, further 1,000 liters were produced.
Conclusions on optimised oil (del 3.11)
As study has been made on the potential of the developed purification method (del 3.4) to reduce the content of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) in addition to phosphorous (P), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). This was made because engine investigations have shown that deposits of Na and K might occure in vegetable oil fuelled engines under certain circumstances. The results show clearly that Na and K are removed from the oil until the detection limit in the same way as P, Ca and Mg are removed when applying the purification method developed in this project (use of bleaching clay mixture OBEFIL; see del 3.4).
A second issue of the study was if the use of OBEFIL for oil purification has a negative effect on the oxidation stability. The result is again yes. A clear dependency of the degradation of the oxidation stability on the concentration of OBEFIL used for the oil purification could be found.
In the next step, four different anti-oxidation additives were tested. The stabilizer BAYONOX Plus was found to have the best performance and was selected for the further oil production for the test fleet.
The final goal of 2nd generation vegetable oil production can thus be achieved when combining an optimum oil pressing with subsequent purification of the oil with OBEFIL and readjustment of the oxidation stability with an anti-oxidant. There are clear dependencies that allow determining the required concentrations of these substances for purification and additivation.
The study has also shown that problems persist with the acid value and cetane number in the case of camelina sativa oil, respectively acid value and water content in the case of jatropha oil. The values for these parameters are not within the limits set by DIN V 51605 at this stage.
Workpackage 4: Engine oil development
Lubrizol has provided two different lubricant oils (compliant, respectively, with ACEA E7 and E9) for bench marking to John Deere, VWP and the Technical University of Kaiserslautern where John Deere in performing engine tests. The publishable summary provides a short overview of the lubricant provision.
Conclusions from engine lubricant bench marking (del 4.2)
Used ACEA E9 engine lubricant from test runs with pure vegetable oil was submitted to chemical and physical analysis. ACEA E9 compliant lubricants are low ash lubricants that are specifically designed to be used in engines with diesel particulate filter (DPF). No significant degradation of the lubricant was noted. It is therefore concluded that the ACEA E9 lubricant is suitable to be assessed in the field trial (WP5).
Engine lubricant provision for EU Stage 3A engines with DPF (del 4.3)
Appropriate amounts of engine lubricant were sent to the various test facilities allowing the start of the EU Stage 3A compliant tractor testing. The engine lubricant supplied was an ACEA E9 lubricant previously identified to be suitable by bench marking.
Conclusions from lubricant oil EU Stage 3A engines with DPF (del 4.4)
Used ACEA E9 lubricant oil from the demonstration test fleet has been analysed. The use lubricant shows little change compared to fresh one. At this stage, it can be concluded that the ACEA E9 lubricant used for the test fleet is suitable for EU Stage 3A compliant engines with DPF, at least up to drain oil interval of 250 hours.
Engine oil provision for EU Stage 3B/4 engines (del 4.5)
From August 2009 to June 2010 appropriate amounts of engine lubricant oil, suitable for EU Stage 3B/ 4 engines, has been supplied to the various test facilities to allow them to conduct their field trial exercises.
Conclusions from engine oil with EU Stage 3B/4 engines (del 4.6)
Used ACEA E9 lubricant oil from the demonstration test fleet has been analysed. The use lubricant shows little change compared to fresh one. At this stage, it can be concluded that the ACEA E9 lubricant used for the test fleet is suitable for EU Stage 3B compliant engines, at least up to drain oil interval of 250 hours.
Engine lubricant provision for field trial (del 4.7)
Appropriate amounts of lubricant were sent to the test field trial sites in France, Austria and Poland for field testing in EU stage 3A tractors and to Germany for field testing in tractors being converted to EU stage 3B.
Drain engine oil analysis for field trial (del 4.8)
The results of the chemical and physical testing of used lubricant samples from the demonstration fleet show that both lubricants used in the project have performed satisfactorily and seem to be appropriate for use in 2nd generation pure vegetable oil fuelled advanced diesel engines when the lubricant drain interval is 250 hours.
Conclusions on engine oil analysis from field trial (del 4.9)
Summary of conclusions as drawn in del 4.8.
Sensor provision (del 4.10a)
One Quality Diagnostic System (QDiSTM) sensor has been sent to John Deere, Mannheim, and the Technical University of Munich, respectively, for installation in test engines. The sensor monitors the lubricant's ability to provide the desired engine life in real-time by trending lubricant electrical properties as a function of engine use.
Sensor provision (del 4.10b)
The sensor data interpretation show that the lubricants had good contaminant control and surface protection functionality.
Lubricant supply (del 4.11a)
This document summarizes the lubricants supplied to the test fleet within the first project year. It includes the specifications of the lubricants used.
Lubricant supply (del 4.11b)
Same as del 4.11a, but for the second project year.
Lubricant supply (del 4.11c)
Same as del 4.11a and 4.11b, but for the third project year (August 2010 to July 2011) and the extension period (August - December 2011).
Elaboration of technical summary report on engine oil development (del 4.12)
Report with deeper analysis of measured chemical and physical properties of used lubricant samples.
Production of publishable document on engine oil development (del 4.13)
Overall summary of lubricant development work within 2ndVegOil.
Workpackage 5: Engine demonstration
Due to changes in the engine demonstration programme during the project, the information contained in the older project activity reports is not exactly up to date. The following abstracts provide the information on the latest status for the most important points.
First stage 3A compliant demonstration vehicles (del 5.1)
Four stage 3A compliant tractors have been converted for pure vegetable oil operation. The selected models are the 6830 Premium, 6930 Premium, 7430 Premium and 7530 Premium tractors of John Deere. They are all powered by the 6068 PowerTech Plus engine, but at two different power levels. They are compliant with the EU stage 3A emission level.
These tractor models are the largest and most powerful ones produced by John Deere. Their consideration in this project responds to the results of a market evaluation which has shown that operators of large tractors with high annual operation hours are the target group with the biggest interest in pure vegetable oil fuelled tractors.
The four vehicles were tested and their functionality and performance were validated by John Deere before the demonstration under real operation conditions started at different locations. They will be very closely monitored by John Deere itself throughout the project. One of them is run by, and closely monitored together with, the Technologie- und Förderzentrum (TZF) in Straubing/Germany.
Fourteen stage 3A compliant demonstration vehicles (del 5.8)
(The numbering of the deliverables in WP5 is not exactly incremental due to a reordering of the workprogramme steps after project start. Hence, del 5.8 follows on del 5.1.)
10 further tractors, i.e. a total of 14 tractors if one includes the 4 tractors already reported on in del 5.1, from the John Deere series production were converted to pure vegetable oil operation. The tractors were evaluated on a John Deere test bench and performance and system functionality were assessed. The engines are compliant with the EU stage 3A emission level.
The 10 additional tractors have been delivered to farmers and agricultural machine rings in Austria, France, and Poland who test them under real operation conditions under the supervision of the project partners Waldland, FRCUMA and IBMER. One of these tractors is run by IBMER itself on its test farm in Poznan.
Stage 3A vehicle field testing (del 5.2)
This report covers the field testing of the first 4 converted EU stage 3A compliant tractors which are submitted to a very intensive monitoring. The field testing of the 10 other EU stage 3A compliant tractors is reported on in del 5.7 (forthcoming; see below). The present report is an interim version. The final version will be published in autumn 2011.
The tractors have been fuelled by different pure vegetable oils. There has been no engine damage. The engine performance was in the targeted range. Concerning lubricants ACEA E7 as well as E9 lubricants have shown to be suitable (no DPF installed yet!). Also, both investigated additives, "JD Protect 100" and an additive provided by Lubrizol appear to be suitable.
1 stage 3B compliant demonstration vehicle (del 5.3)
A pre-series EU stage 3B compliant John Deere tractor with integrated DOC/DPF was converted to 2nd generation pure vegetable oil operation and tested.
Test report stage 3B (del 5.4)
1 stage 4 compliant demonstration vehicles (del 5.5)
Test report stage 4 (del 5.6)
The previously converted EU stage 3B tractor was retrofit with an SCR system, thus achieving EU stage 4 compliance, and tested.
Fleet monitoring report (del 5.7)
Support actions (del 5.9)
The present report on support actions is an interim report about the tractor demonstration that reflects the status of the work as of January 2010. It will be completed at the end of 2011 and complemented by the report del 5.7 about the fleet monitoring.
The report covers the experience with field testing of those 10 tractors that are operated in Austria, France and Poland which comply with EU stage 3A emission level (see del 5.8 above). These tractors are operated and monitored for a period of 26 months in close contact with the respective local John Deere dealers by farmers and machine rings under the close supervision of the project partners Waldland, FRCUMA and IBMER. This includes a comprehensive training of the test users on operating and monitoring vegetable oil fuelled tractors. This training and the evaluation of the basic monitoring sheets is done by the project partner IBDI. The present report reflects the findings after the first 8 months of field testing.
Up until January 2010 all tractors were exclusively fuelled with 2nd generation rape seed fuel from the first reference press in Austria (see del 3.8). The fuel supply is closely controlled from the press to the tank. Samples of each delivery charge are submitted to a laboratory analysis. Due to the excellent results obtained in test runs with pure other oils, including those which were thought to be very little suitable as fuel (see del 3.6), field tests with 100% sunflower, camelina sativa, jatropha and maize germ oil are planned for 2010 and 2011.
So far, the demonstration is going on as planned. All tractors are correctly operating with pure rape seed oil as fuel.
Workpackage 6: Fuel standard development
Study on the requirements for vegetable oil standardization (del 6.1)
A study on requirements for vegetable oil standardisation was made in the frame of a formal European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) workshop.
Proposal for a vegetable oil standard (del 6.2)
The work in 2ndVegOil project has led to a new draft standard for pure plant oil fuels that has been set up in form of a Workshop Agreement (CWA 16379) of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN).
Workpackage 7: Dissemination
Publications (del 7.1)
See extra page for publications and presentations
Presentations (del 7.2)
See extra page for publications and presentations
Guidelines and information kit for oil press operators, agricultural organisations, vehicle operators, etc. (del 7.3)
Summary information on oil pressing and purification for oil press operators.
300 information kit incl. guidelines (del 7.4)
The information kit incl. guidelines for oil press operators, agricultural organisations, vehicle operators, etc. has been print in the format of a 6 page DIN A4 folder in English and German. It has been presented and distributed at the Final Event in Brussels on 19 December 2011.
International conference "Biofuel in agriculture and rural areas development" (del 7.5)
This has taken place from 30 May to 1 June 2011 in Warsaw. The full documentation can be found on the events page of this site.
Dissemination seminar (one day) in Lyon (del 7.6)
On 26 January 2010, a conference took place in Lyon at which the interim results of the project were presented.
Project result brochure (del 7.7)
The project results have been presented at the Final Event in Brussels on 19 December 2011. The project slides have been made available in the form of a brochure.
On-site visits of tractors in action (del 7.8)
The present document provides an overview of on-site visits of tractors in action.
Presentations towards regional agricultural, standardisation and other organisations (del 7.9)
See extra page for publications and presentations
Workpackage 8: Project evaluation
The main results of this workpackage have been presented at the Final Event in Brussels (see news). They are contained in the Final Project Results Leaflet (Del. 7.7), the presentation slides of the Final Event, the monograph "Climate design of Pure Vegetable Oil Fuels", and the Final Publishable Report (see publications, presentations and posters).